PubMed Google Scholar The tree was rooted manually and was not subjected to bootstrap resampling. Giuseppe Sarli: ti. Open in a separate window. EPPO Bull. New Phytol. SB conducted in the genome assembly, automatic genome annotations and sequence depositions. To date, several studies have investigated the role of PCV2 in experimental infection of pregnant swine such as surgical trans-uterine viral inoculation [ 2122 ], oro-nasal infection of specific pathogen-free SPF [ 18 ] or seronegative conventional sows [ 14 ], insemination with PCV2-spiked semen of PCV2 seronegative or SPF sows [ 152324 ], whereas investigations employing the intrauterine route with infected semen in conventional PCV2 antibody-positive sows are lacking. Since then, it has been applied in the development of a real-time PCR detection method for Xf [ 70 ], served as Xf reference in a study of X.
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Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 PCV2 infection on reproduction: disease, vertical transmission, diagnostics and vaccination.
Vascular endothelial growth factor production in growing pig antral follicles. Maas JL: Angular leaf spot. This was confirmed by Madson and others [ 15 ] who showed that infection by artificial insemination can produce PCV2-seropositive piglets.
The role of viraemia was also implicated by Mateusen and others [ 16 ] who proved that exposure to PCV2 during the earliest stages of embryonic development with an intact zona pellucida ZP did not cause infection.
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Recent advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics, together with emerging commercial whole genome sequencing services, have resulted in rapid and cost-effective means of generating draft genomes fit for most plant-pathology related studies [ 17 ].
Therefore, one could hypothesize that one way for Xf to survive long-term residence in its potentially toxic host is to avoid extensive tissue damage. The 46 reference protein sequences are listed in the table rows, with the name of the genome they were retrieved from and their Genbank locus tags indicated in the second and third columns.
If sufficiently severe, placental lesions can cause foetal death, and replication in the placenta may expose the foetus to increased amounts of virus. Materno-foetal transmission can occur via free viral PCV2 particles or cell-mediated viraemia [ 13 ]. To determine the phylogenetic position of Xf within the Xanthomonas genus, we performed in silico multi-locus sequence analysis using partial sequences of the genes gyrBrpoDatpDdnaK and fyuAaccording to Parkinson et al.
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|Bootstrap support for the groups is represented on the tree at the different nodes.
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Doses were then incubated for one hour at room temperature before artificial insemination AI. Smaller CWDE repertoires are typically found in biotrophic pathogens, who rely on precise breaching of the host cell wall during infection instead of extensive tissue destruction observed for necrotrophic pathogens [ 53 ].
Published online Aug Radar chart showing the number of complete homologs of pectinolytic, cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes found in the 26 studied Xanthomonas genomes. In our opinion, the most appealing matters for future research are i the molecular and functional characterization of the putatively new PsvA -like T3SEs, ii the exact function of the T6SS in Xf and other Xanthomonasand iii the delicate endophytic existence of Xf, sensitive to toxic compounds inside the strawberry plant cells.
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|A second, Mate-Paired MP Illumina short-read dataset with a larger insert size was generated to avoid incomplete genome assembly caused by read ambiguity.
The introduction of virus by semen is not the prime cause of viral exposure of the conceptus as long as the ZP protects it from PCV2 infection [ 16 ], but it is important for the development of a viraemia under which the foetuses become infected.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Nat Rev Microbiol. Darrow GM: The strawberry. Pairwise similarity among XopA homologs. Perhaps the relatively young practice of formal plant breeding in strawberry cultivation 18thth century AD [ 64 ] compared to the ancient domestication of rice — BC [ 65 ] has to be considered.